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Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp. 1999.

Genazzani AD, Chierchia E, Lanzoni C, et al. [Effects of Klamath Algae extract on psychological disorders and depression in menopausal women: a pilot study]. Minerva Ginecol 2010;62:381-8. View abstract.

Gilroy DJ, Kauffman KW, Hall RA, et al. Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108:435-9. View abstract.

Hayashi O, Hirahashi T, Katoh T, et al. Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1998;44:841-51. View abstract.

Hayashi O, Katoh T, Okuwaki Y. Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary Spirulina platensis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1994;40:431-41. View abstract.

Hirahashi T, Matsumoto M, Hazeki K, et al. Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis. Int Immunopharmacol 2002;2:423-34. View abstract.

Iwasa M, Yamamoto M, Tanaka Y, et al. Spirulina-associated hepatotoxicity. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:3212-13. View abstract.

Jensen GS, Ginsberg DJ, Huerta P, et al. Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae has rapid effects on the circulation and function of immune cells in humans. A novel approach to nutritional mobilization of the immune system. JANA 2000;2:50-6.

Juarez-Oropeza MA, Mascher D, Torres-Duran PV, Farias JM, Paredes-Carbajal MC. Effects of dietary Spirulina on vascular reactivity.J.Med.Food 2009;12:15-20. View abstract.

Kalafati M, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:142-51. View abstract.

Katz M, Levine AA, Kol-Degani H, Kav-Venaki L. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. J Atten Disord 2010;14:281-91. View abstract.

Kim HM, Lee EH, Cho HH, Moon YH. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by spirulina. Biochem Pharmacol 1998;55:1071-6. View abstract.

Kushak RI, Drapeau C, Van Cott EM, Winter HH. Favorable effects of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on rat plasma lipids. JANA 2000;2:59-65.

Kushak RI, Drapeau C, Winter HS. The effect of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-Aquae on nutrient assimilation in rats. JANA 2001;3:35-39.

Lee AN, Werth VP. Activation of autoimmunity following use of immunostimulatory herbal supplements. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:723-7. View abstract.

Lu HK, Hsieh CC, Hsu JJ, et al. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006;98:220-6. View abstract.

Mani UV, Desai S, Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. J Nutraceut 2000;2(3):25-32.

Mao TK, Van de Water J, Gershwin ME. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients. J Med Food 2005;8:27-30. View abstract.

Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, et al. Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiforms. Nutr Cancer 1995;24:197-02. View abstract.

Misbahuddin M, Islam A Z, Khandker S, et al. Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006;44:135-41. View abstract.

Nakaya N, Homma Y, Goto Y. Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina. Nutr Rep Internat 1988;37(6):1329-37.

Park HJ, Lee YJ, Ryu HK, et al. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish the effects of spirulina in elderly Koreans. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2008;52:322-8. View abstract.

Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res 1998;47:36-41. View abstract.

Romay C, Ledon N, Gonzalez R. Further studies on anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin in some animal models of inflammation. Inflamm Res 1998;47:334-8. View abstract.

Shastri D, Kumar M, Kumar A. Modulation of lead toxicity by Spirulina fusiformis. Phytother Res 1999;13:258-60. View abstract.

Simpore J, Kabore F, Zongo F, et al. Nutrition rehabilitation of undernourished children utilizing Spiruline and Misola. Nutr J 2006;5:3. View abstract.

Vitale S, Miller NR, Mejico LJ, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of super blue-green algae in patients with essential blepharospasm or Meige syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;138:18-32. View abstract.

Yakoot M, Salem A. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial. BMC,Gastroenterol 2012;12:32.

Ayehunie, S. Belay, A. Baba, T. W. and Ruprecht, R. M. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr.Hum Retrovirol. 5-1-1998;18(1):7-12. View abstract.

Balachandran, P. Pugh, N. D. Ma, G. and Pasco, D. S. Toll-like receptor 2-dependent activation of monocytes by Spirulina polysaccharide and its immune enhancing action in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-5-2006;6(12):1808-1814. View abstract.

Baroni, L. Scoglio, S. Benedetti, S. Bonetto, C. Pagliarani, S. Benedetti, Y. Rocchi, M. and Canestrari, F. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2009;79(2):117-123. View abstract.

Becker EW, Jakober B, Luft D, and et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study. Nutr Report Internat 1986;33(4):565-574.

Berardesca, E. Bertona, M. Altabas, K. Altabas, V. and Emanuele, E. Reduced ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin with topical application of a photolyase-containing DNA repair enzyme cream: clues to skin cancer prevention. Mol.Med.Rep. 2012;5(2):570-574. View abstract.

Bogatov, N. V. [Selenium deficiency and its dietary correction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and chronic catarrhal colitis]. Vopr.Pitan. 2007;76(3):35-39. View abstract.

Bucaille P. Intérêt et efficacité de l'algue spiruline dans l'alimentation des enfants présentant une malnutrition protéinoénergétique en milieu tropical. Thèse de doctorat en médecine.Toulouse-3 université Paul-Sabatier 1990;Thèse de doctorat en médecine. Toulouse-3 université Paul-Sabatier:1.

Chamorro, G. A. Herrera, G. Salazar, M. Salazar, S. and Ulloa, V. Short-term toxicity study of Spirulina in F3b generation rats. J Toxicol Clin Exp 1988;8(3):163-167. View abstract.

Chamorro, G. A. Herrera, G. Salazar, M. Salazar, S. and Ulloa, V. Subchronic toxicity study in rats fed Spirulina. J Pharm Belg. 1988;43(1):29-36. View abstract.

Chamorro, G. and Salazar, M. [Teratogenic study of Spirulina in mice]. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 1990;40(1):86-94. View abstract.

Chamorro, G. Perez-Albiter, M. Serrano-Garcia, N. Mares-Samano, J. J. and Rojas, P. Spirulina maxima pretreatment partially protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity. Nutr Neurosci. 2006;9(5-6):207-212. View abstract.

Chamorro-Cevallos, G. Garduno-Siciliano, L. Barron, B. L. Madrigal-Bujaidar, E. Cruz-Vega, D. E. and Pages, N. Chemoprotective effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) against cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(2):567-574. View abstract.

Cheng, C. G. Hong, Q. H. Li, D. T. Fan, M. H. and Cai, X. D. [Determination of trace elements in Spirulina platensis (Notdst.) Geitl. by flame atomic absorption spectrometry combined with microsampling pulse nebulization technique]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2006;26(9):1735-1737. View abstract.

Doshi, H. Ray, A. and Kothari, I. L. Bioremediation potential of live and dead Spirulina: spectroscopic, kinetics and SEM studies. Biotechnol.Bioeng. 4-15-2007;96(6):1051-1063. View abstract.

Doshi, H. Ray, A. and Kothari, I. L. Biosorption of cadmium by live and dead Spirulina: IR spectroscopic, kinetics, and SEM studies. Curr Microbiol. 2007;54(3):213-218. View abstract.

Evets L. Means to normalize the levels of immunoglobulin E, using the food supplement spirulina. Russian Federation Committee of Patents and Trade 1994;Patent (19)(RU (11)):2005486.

Farooq, S. M. Ebrahim, A. S. Subramhanya, K. H. Sakthivel, R. Rajesh, N. G. and Varalakshmi, P. Oxalate mediated nephronal impairment and its inhibition by c-phycocyanin: a study on urolithic rats. Mol.Cell Biochem 2006;284(1-2):95-101. View abstract.

Froscio, S. M. Fanok, S. and Humpage, A. R. Cytotoxicity screening for the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin. J.Toxicol.Environ.Health A 2009;72(5):345-349. View abstract.

Gaese H. Chemical Composition and Potential Application of Spirulina platensis Biomass. International Journal of Agr.& Env. 2012;4.

Giannuzzi, L. Sedan, D. Echenique, R. and Andrinolo, D. An acute case of intoxication with cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in recreational water in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina. Mar.Drugs 2011;9(11):2164-2175. View abstract.

Gonzalez, de Rivera, Miranda-Zamora, R. Diaz-Zagoya, J. C. and Juarez-Oropeza, M. A. Preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fatty liver induced by a fructose-rich diet in the rat, a preliminary report. Life Sci 1993;53(1):57-61. View abstract.

Gonzalez, R. Rodriguez, S. Romay, C. Gonzalez, A. Armesto, J. Remirez, D. and Merino, N. Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid- induced colitis in rats. Pharmacol Res 1999;39(1):1055-1059. View abstract.

Gorban', E. M. Orynchak, M. A. Virstiuk, N. G. Kuprash, L. P. Panteleimonova, T. M. and Sharabura, L. B. [Clinical and experimental study of spirulina efficacy in chronic diffuse liver diseases]. Lik.Sprava. 2000;(6):89-93. View abstract.

Grzanna, R. Polotsky, A. Phan, P. V. Pugh, N. Pasco, D. and Frondoza, C. G. Immolina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide fraction of Spirulina, enhances chemokine expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(5):429-435. View abstract.

Guan, Y. Zhao, H. Y. Ding, X. F. and Zhu, Y. Y. [Analysis of the contents of elements in spirulina from different producing areas]. Guang.Pu.Xue.Yu Guang.Pu.Fen.Xi. 2007;27(5):1029-1031. View abstract.

Habou H, Degbey H Hamadou B. Évaluation de l'efficacité de la supplémentation en spiruline du régime habituel des enfants atteints de malnutrition proteinoénergétique sévère (à propos de 56 cas). Thèse de doctorat en médecine Niger 2003;1.

Halidou, Doudou M. Degbey, H. Daouda, H. Leveque, A. Donnen, P. Hennart, P. and Dramaix-Wilmet, M. [The effect of spiruline during nutritional rehabilitation: systematic review]. Rev.Epidemiol.Sante Publique 2008;56(6):425-431. View abstract.

Han, L. K. Li, D. X. Xiang, L. Gong, X. J. Kondo, Y. Suzuki, I. and Okuda, H. [Isolation of pancreatic lipase activity-inhibitory component of spirulina platensis and it reduce postprandial triacylglycerolemia]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006;126(1):43-49. View abstract.

Hayashi, K. Hayashi, T. and Kojima, I. A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. AIDS res Hum Retroviruses 10-10-1996;12(15):1463-1471. View abstract.

He, H. L. Chen, X. L. Wu, H. Sun, C. Y. Zhang, Y. Z. and Zhou, B. C. High throughput and rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity by capillary electrophoresis. Bioresour.Technol 2007;98(18):3499-3505. View abstract.

Herrero, M. Vicente, M. J. Cifuentes, A. and Ibanez, E. Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the lipid fraction of Spirulina platensis pressurized ethanol extract. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(11):1729-1738. View abstract.

Hofer, A. Legat, F. J. Gruber-Wackernagel, A. Quehenberger, F. and Wolf, P. Topical liposomal DNA-repair enzymes in polymorphic light eruption. Photochem.Photobiol.Sci. 2011;10(7):1118-1128. View abstract.

Hongsthong, A. Sirijuntarut, M. Prommeenate, P. Thammathorn, S. Bunnag, B. Cheevadhanarak, S. and Tanticharoen, M. Revealing differentially expressed proteins in two morphological forms of Spirulina platensis by proteomic analysis. Mol.Biotechnol. 2007;36(2):123-130. View abstract.

Huang, Z. and Zheng, W. [Antagonistic effects of Se-rich Spirulina platensis on rat liver fibrosis]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 2007;36(1):34-36. View abstract.

Ishii, K. Katoch, T. Okuwaki, Y. and Hayashi, O. Influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on IgA level in human saliva. J Kagawa Nutr Univ 1999;30:27-33.

Ishimi, Y. Sugiyama, F. Ezaki, J. Fujioka, M. and Wu, J. Effects of spirulina, a blue-green alga, on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats and hindlimb-unloaded mice. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2006;70(2):363-368. View abstract.

Ivanova, K. G. Stankova, K. G. Nikolov, V. N. Georgieva, R. T. Minkova, K. M. Gigova, L. G. Rupova, I. T. and Boteva, R. N. The biliprotein C-phycocyanin modulates the early radiation response: a pilot study. Mutat.Res. 2010;695(1-2):40-45. View abstract.

Iwata K, Inayama T, and Kato T. Effects of spirulina platensis on fructose-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi (J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci) 1987;40:463-467.

Iwata, K. Inayama, T. and Kato, T. Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1990;36(2):165-171. View abstract.

Johnson PE and Shubert LE. Accumulation of mercury and other elements by Spirulina (Cyanophyceae). Nutr Rep Int 1986;34:1063-1070.

Karaca, T. and Simsek, N. Effects of spirulina on the number of ovary mast cells in lead-induced toxicity in rats. Phytother Res 2007;21(1):44-46. View abstract.

Karkos, P. D. Leong, S. C. Arya, A. K. Papouliakos, S. M. Apostolidou, M. T. and Issing, W. J. 'Complementary ENT': a systematic review of commonly used supplements. J Laryngol.Otol. 2007;121(8):779-782. View abstract.

Kato T, Takemoto K, Katayama H, and et al. Effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi (J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci) 1984;37:323-332.

Kaushal, S. Mathur, S. R. Mallick, S. R. and Ramam, M. Disseminated cutaneous, laryngeal, nasopharyngeal, and recurrent obstructive nasal rhinosporidiosis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of literature. Int.J.Dermatol. 2011;50(3):340-342. View abstract.

Khan, M. Shobha, J. C. Mohan, I. K. Naidu, M. U. Sundaram, C. Singh, S. Kuppusamy, P. and Kutala, V. K. Protective effect of Spirulina against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytother Res 2005;19(12):1030-1037. View abstract.

Khan, M. Shobha, J. C. Mohan, I. K. Rao Naidu, M. U. Prayag, A. and Kutala, V. K. Spirulina attenuates cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Appl Toxicol 2006;26(5):444-451. View abstract.

Khan, M. Varadharaj, S. Ganesan, L. P. Shobha, J. C. Naidu, M. U. Parinandi, N. L. Tridandapani, S. Kutala, V. K. and Kuppusamy, P. C-phycocyanin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart through involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK signaling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2006;290(5):H2136-H2145. View abstract.

Khan, M. Varadharaj, S. Shobha, J. C. Naidu, M. U. Parinandi, N. L. Kutala, V. K. and Kuppusamy, P. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2006;47(1):9-20. View abstract.

Konno, T. Umeda, Y. Umeda, M. Kawachi, I. Oyake, M. and Fujita, N. [A case of inflammatory myopathy with widely skin rash following use of supplements containing Spirulina]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2011;51(5):330-333. View abstract.

Kraigher, O. Wohl, Y. Gat, A. and Brenner, S. A mixed immunoblistering disorder exhibiting features of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus foliaceus associated with Spirulina algae intake. Int.J.Dermatol. 2008;47(1):61-63. View abstract.

Kuhad, A. Tirkey, N. Pilkhwal, S. and Chopra, K. Effect of Spirulina, a blue green algae, on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2006;20(2):121-128. View abstract.

Kuhad, A. Tirkey, N. Pilkhwal, S. and Chopra, K. Renoprotective effect of Spirulina fusiformis on cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Ren Fail. 2006;28(3):247-254. View abstract.

Li, B. Gao, M. H. Zhang, X. C. and Chu, X. M. Molecular immune mechanism of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. Biotechnol.Appl Biochem 2006;43(Pt 3):155-164. View abstract.

Loke, M. F. Lui, S. Y. Ng, B. L. Gong, M. and Ho, B. Antiadhesive property of microalgal polysaccharide extract on the binding of Helicobacter pylori to gastric mucin. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;50(2):231-238. View abstract.

Madhyastha, H. K. Radha, K. S. Sugiki, M. Omura, S. and Maruyama, M. Purification of c-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its effect on the induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator from calf pulmonary endothelial cells. Phytomedicine 2006;13(8):564-569. View abstract.

Mani UV, Desai S, and Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. J Nutraceut 2000;2(3):25-32.

Marcel, A. K. Ekali, L. G. Eugene, S. Arnold, O. E. Sandrine, E. D. von der, Weid D. Gbaguidi, E. Ngogang, J. and Mbanya, J. C. The effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean on insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients: a randomized pilot study. Nutrients. 2011;3(7):712-724. View abstract.

Mazokopakis, E. E. Karefilakis, C. M. Tsartsalis, A. N. Milkas, A. N. and Ganotakis, E. S. Acute rhabdomyolysis caused by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). Phytomedicine. 2008;15(6-7):525-527. View abstract.

Micheletti, E. Colica, G. Viti, C. Tamagnini, P. and De, Philippis R. Selectivity in the heavy metal removal by exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria. J.Appl.Microbiol. 2008;105(1):88-94. View abstract.

Mishima T, Murata J, Toyoshima M, and et al. Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide derived from a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis. Clin Exp Metastasis 1998;16:541-550.

Mitchell, G. V. Grundel, E. Jenkins, M. and Blakely, S. R. Effects of graded dietary levels of Spirulina maxima on vitamins A and E in male rats. J Nutr. 1990;120(10):1235-1240. View abstract.

Mittalo A, Kumar A, and Rao T. Modulatory influence of Spirulina fusiformas on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice. Pharmaceut Biol 1998;36(5):341-346.

Mohan, I. K. Khan, M. Shobha, J. C. Naidu, M. U. Prayag, A. Kuppusamy, P. and Kutala, V. K. Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by Spirulina in rats. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 2006;58(6):802-808. View abstract.

Moulis, G. Batz, A. Durrieu, G. Viard, C. Decramer, S. and Montastruc, J. L. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia related to maternal exposure to nutritional supplement containing Spirulina. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2012;68(2):221-222. View abstract.

Murthy, K. N. Rajesha, J. Swamy, M. M. and Ravishankar, G. A. Comparative evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of carotenoids of microalgae. J Med Food 2005;8(4):523-528. View abstract.

Mustafa, N. Periyasamy, P. and Kamaruddin, N. Steven Johnson syndrome in a patient with Cushing's disease. Med.J.Malaysia 2009;64(3):238-239. View abstract.

Nakaya N, Homma Y, and Goto Y. Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina. Nutrit Repor Internat 1988;37(6):1329-1337.

Narasimha, D. L. Venkataraman, G. S. Duggal, S. K. and Eggum, B. O. Nutritional quality of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis Geitler. J Sci Food Agric 1982;33(5):456-460. View abstract.

Nielsen, C. H. Balachandran, P. Christensen, O. Pugh, N. D. Tamta, H. Sufka, K. J. Wu, X. Walsted, A. Schjorring-Thyssen, M. Enevold, C. and Pasco, D. S. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina(R), a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins. Planta Med. 2010;76(16):1802-1808. View abstract.

Oishi, S. and Watanabe, M. F. Acute toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa and its cardiovascular effects. Environ Res 1986;40(2):518-524. View abstract.

Pandi, M. Shashirekha, V. and Swamy, M. Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria. Microbiol.Res 5-11-2007; View abstract.

Parada, J. L. Zulpa, de Caire, Zaccaro de Mule, M. C. and Storni de Cano, M. M. Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis. Int J Food Microbiol 12-22-1998;45(3):225-228. View abstract.

Patel, A. Mishra, S. and Ghosh, P. K. Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2006;43(1):25-31. View abstract.

Premkumar, K. Abraham, S. K. Santhiya, S. T. and Ramesh, A. Protective effect of Spirulina fusiformis on chemical-induced genotoxicity in mice. Fitoterapia 2004;75(1):24-31. View abstract.

Rasool, M. and Sabina, E. P. Appraisal of immunomodulatory potential of Spirulina fusiformis: an in vivo and in vitro study. J.Nat.Med. 2009;63(2):169-175. View abstract.

Rasool, M. Sabina, E. P. and Lavanya, B. Anti-inflammatory effect of Spirulina fusiformis on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(12):2483-2487. View abstract.

Rawn, D. F. Niedzwiadek, B. Lau, B. P. and Saker, M. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal. J Food Prot. 2007;70(3):776-779. View abstract.

Riss, J. Decorde, K. Sutra, T. Delage, M. Baccou, J. C. Jouy, N. Brune, J. P. Oreal, H. Cristol, J. P. and Rouanet, J. M. Phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis is powerfully responsible for reducing oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase expression induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters. J Agric Food Chem 9-19-2007;55(19):7962-7967. View abstract.

Roy, K. R. Arunasree, K. M. Dhoot, A. Aparna, R. Reddy, G. V. Vali, S. and Reddanna, P. C-Phycocyanin inhibits 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced expression of MDR1 in mouse macrophage cells: ROS mediated pathway determined via combination of experimental and In silico analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 3-15-2007;459(2):169-177. View abstract.

Roy, K. R. Arunasree, K. M. Reddy, N. P. Dheeraj, B. Reddy, G. V. and Reddanna, P. Alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by Spirulina platensis C-phycocyanin induces apoptosis in the doxorubicinresistant human hepatocellular-carcinoma cell line HepG2. Biotechnol.Appl Biochem 2007;47(Pt 3):159-167. View abstract.

Salazar, M. Chamorro, G. A. Salazar, S. and Steele, C. E. Effect of Spirulina maxima consumption on reproduction and peri- and postnatal development in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1996;34(4):353-359. View abstract.

Salazar, M. Martinez, E. Madrigal, E. Ruiz, L. E. and Chamorro, G. A. Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(3):235-241. View abstract.

Sall MG, Dankoko B Badiane M Ehua E. Résultats d'un essai de réhabilitation nutritionnelle avec la spiruline à Dakar. Med Afr Noire 1999;46:143-146.

Samuels, R. Mani, U. V. Iyer, U. M. and Nayak, U. S. Hypocholesterolemic effect of spirulina in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndrome. J Med Food 2002;5(2):91-96. View abstract.

Sautier, C. and Tremolieres, J. [Food value of the spiruline algae to man]. Ann.Nutr.Aliment. 1975;29(6):517-534. View abstract.

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